The Pacem in Maribus (Peace in the Oceans) conference series were first organized through the efforts of Elisabeth Mann Borgese in 1969 with assistance from the government of Malta, the United Nations Development Programme, and the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions. The conferences were designed to attract prominent thinkers and actors, and to focus on the emergent new law of the sea, marine science, and the denuclearisation of the seas. Early attendees and contributors were diplomats, international and national civil servants, industrialists, fisheries experts, oceanographers, economists, and other stakeholders from the developed and developing world. From the first convocation in Malta in 1970, and then internationally, Pacem in Maribus played a crucial role in the formulation and promotion of the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and regarded as important exchanges on the world's oceans and the potential of its resources to sustain humankind.
For more than four decades, between 1970 to 2013, the IOI's flagship Pacem in Maribus (PIM) Conferences considered the challenges of ocean space in their interconnectedness with 34 PIM conferences held around the globe. The conferences have focused on international ocean affairs with topics ranging from arms control, and monitoring and surveillance in the oceans to management and conservation of marine resources; the feasibility of common shipping lines or on ocean development tax; and more recently on emerging issues and challenges presented by climate change, coastal cities and ocean related hazards. The PIM conferences have contributed to the development and formation of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and to policy, science and governance debates on ocean issues since their inception.
Past Conferences: (1970-2013)
PIM I - Malta, 1970: Quiet Enjoyment: Arms Control and Police Forces for the Oceans.
PIM II - Malta, 1971: A Constitution for the Oceans.
PIM III - Malta, 1972: Economic Potential of the Oceans.
PIM IV - Malta, 1973: Regional Cooperation in the Caribbean.
PIM V - Malta, 1974: The Common Heritage of Mankind.
PIM VI - Okinawa, Japan, 1975: The Sea We Would Like to See.
PIM VII - Mexico, 1976: The Law of the Sea and Latin America.
PIM VIII - Algeria, 1977: The Law of the Sea and the New International and Economic Order.
PIM IX - Yaounde, Cameroon, 1978: Africa and the Law of the Sea.
PIM X - Vienna, Austria, 1980: The Monitoring of Ocean Processes, The Surveillance of Uses, and The Enforcement of Agreed Rules of Management and Conservation.
PIM XI - Mexico, 1981: National Legislation and the New Law of the Sea.
PIM XII - Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1982: Marine Sciences and the New Law of the Sea.
PIM XIII - Norrtalje, Sweden, 1984: The Denuclearization of the Oceans.
PIM XIV - USSR, 1985: Technical, Legal, Environmental and Economic Aspects of Shipping and Navigation.
PIM XV - Valletta, Malta, 1987: The Commemoration of the 20th Anniversary of the Maltese Initiative which led to UNCLOS III.
PIM XVI - Halifax, Canada, 1988: Ocean Technology, Development Training and Transfer.
PIM XVII - Moscow, USSR, 1989: Peace in the Oceans: the New Era.
PIM XVIII - Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1990: Ports as Nodal Points in a Global Transport System.
PIM XIX - Lisbon, Portugal, 1991: Ocean Governance: National, Regional, Global Institutional Mechanisms of Sustainable Development in the Oceans.
PIM XX - Valletta, Malta, 1992: Ocean Governance: A Model for Global Governance in the 21st Century.
PIM XXI - Takaoka, Japan, 1993: Ocean Governance: A Model for Regional Seas in the 21st Century
PIM XXII - Madras, India, 1994: Sustainable Development and Regional Cooperation.
PIM XXIII - San Jose, Costa Rica, 1995: Potential Contributions of Ocean Governance and the Law of the Sea to the Implementation of the Secretary General's "Agenda for Peace".
PIM XXIV - Beijing, China, 1996: Oceans in the 21st Century.
PIM XXV - Malta, 1997: Common Heritage and the 21st Century.
PIM XXVI - Canada, 1998: The Crisis of Knowledge: New Directions for Learning and Informed Decision-Making for Oceans and Coasts.
PIM XXVII - Fiji, 1999: Oceans in the New Millennium: Challenges and Opportunities for the Islands.
PIM XXVIII - Hamburg, Germany, 2000: The European Challenge.
PIM XXIX - Cape Town, S Africa, 2002; The Ocean in the New Economy
PIM XXX - Kiev, Ukraine, 2003: A Year after Johannesburg. Ocean Governance and Sustainable Development: Ocean and Coasts - a Glimpse into the Future.
PIM XXXI - Townsville, Australia, 2005: Building Bridges to Integrated Oceans Governance: Linking Ocean Science, Engineering, Science and Policy.
PIM XXXII - Malta, 2007: Waves of Change: Women, Youth and the Sea.
PIM XXXIII - Beijing, PR China, 2010: International Conference on Oceans, Climate Change & Sustainable Development: Challenges to Oceans & Coastal Cities.
PIM XXXIV - Bangkok, Thailand, 2013: International Forum on the Sustainable Governance of the Ocean: Impacts of climate change & ocean related hazards: Water & flood management policy implications, Protection, mitigation & adaptation; & Follow up of the outcome of Rio +20: Implementation of UNCLOS & related instruments in the Southeast Asian region; and Internet Web-Based Geographical Information System.
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